million years ago, a collision between two plates of the earths crust
resulted in the creation of the earths highest mountain Himalayas. The
magnificent range of the Himalayas harbors breathtakingly beautiful scenery
and dramatic environment. The high Himalayas constituting a spectacular
mountain scope are being able to attract the heart of any new comer who is
in search of challenge and grandeur.
The beauty, mystery and
majesty of these mountains are due to the thick layers of ice and snow that
perpetually cover them up. Since time immemorial, the Himalayas has captured
the dream, desires and Imagination of human beings. Even the early Aryans
looked upon these mountains as the abode of gods and goddess and the extra
ordinary objects of beauty, scenic grandeur, peace and tranquility. These
towering mountains have aptly been called the Top of the World
and The Third Pole on the basis of the fact that they
constitute the latitudinal extremity.
Nepal, renowned all over
the world for its scenic and panoramic peaks, is the land of supernatural
virgin beauty and a real paradise for nature lovers.
In 1852 the
highest mountain in the world was determined by and later named after Sir
George Everest. After determination of Mt. Everest, no climber had been a
scaled mountain of Nepal till 1949. But, it is fact that the history of
trekking in Nepal is started after climbing and expedition of many majestic
1949 the Swiss who had been earlier refused permission to attempt
Dhaulagiri, entered-east Nepal by way of Darjeeling. The team who led by
Sutter Lohner and they explored Ramtang Glacier, Kang Bachen peak
(7902m) and the triangle of Drohmo (7008m) Jongsang peak (7473m) and Nupchu
(7028) on the Nepal Tibet Sikkim border. They also climb Tang
Kangma (6249m) on outlays of Drohmo as well as Dzange peak (6709m) before
they returned to Darjeeling on the nineteenth day of their expedition.
In 1949 Nepal opened its frontiers to the outside world and within
eight years ten of the fourteen 8000m peaks had been climbed, Annapurna
(8091m) was the first to be climbed in 1950, this was followed in 1953 by
Everest (8848m) and Nanga Parbat (8125m). From then on the number of
expeditions coming from many different countries of the world multiplied and
by 1964 all these Himalayan giants had been climbed, one being Shisa Pangma
(8046m) scaled by the Chinese in 1964.
The highest Peak Mt.
Everest of the world and other numerous peaks have been climbed many times
now. Tenzing Norge Sherpa and Edmund Hillary reached at top of the world Mt.
Everest in 1953. Sir. Edmond Hillary stated Nepal is the only country
in the world which is also one of the worlds great trekking paradises
and one of the nicest countries in the world for trekking.
In addition to its lofty mountains, Nepal provides beautiful displays of its
resplendent flora and fauna.
Himalayas, the highest mountain range in the world, extend along the
northern frontiers of Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Burma. They were
formed geologically as a result of the collision of the Indian subcontinent
with Asia. This process of plate tectonics is ongoing, and the gradual
northward drift of the Indian subcontinent still causes earthquakes (see
Earthquakes, this ch.). Lesser ranges jut southward from the main body of
the Himalayas at both the eastern and western ends.
system, about 2,400 kilometers in length and varying in width from 240 to
330 kilometers, is made up of three parallel ranges--the Greater Himalayas,
the Lesser Himalayas, and the Outer Himalayas--sometimes collectively called
the Great Himalayan Range. The Greater Himalayas, or northern range, average
approximately 6,000 meters in height and contain the three highest mountains
on earth: Mount Everest (8,796 meters) on the China-Nepal border; K2 (8,611
meters, also known as Mount Godwin-Austen, and in China as Qogir Feng) in an
area claimed by India, Pakistan, and China; and Kanchenjunga (8,598 meters)
on the India-Nepal border.
Many major mountains are located entirely within India, such as Nanda Devi
(7,817 meters) in the state of Uttar Pradesh. The snow line averages 4,500
to 6,000 meters on the southern side of the Greater Himalayas and 5,500 to
6,000 on the northern side. Because of climatic conditions, the snow line in
the eastern Himalayas averages 4,300 meters, while in the western Himalayas
it averages 5,800 meters.
The Lesser Himalayas, located in
northwestern India in the states of Himachal Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, in
north-central India in the state of Sikkim, and in northeastern India in the
state of Arunachal Pradesh, range from 1,500 to 5,000 meters in height.
Located in the Lesser Himalayas are the hill stations of Shimla (Simla) and
During the colonial period, these and
other hill stations were used by the British as summer retreats to escape
the intense heat of the plains. It is in this transitional vegetation zone
that the contrasts between the bare southern slopes and the forested
northern slopes become most noticeable.
The Outer or Southern
Himalayas, averaging 900 to 1,200 meters in elevation, lie between the
Lesser Himalayas and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In Himachal Pradesh and Uttar
Pradesh, this southernmost range is often referred to as the Siwalik Hills.
It is possible to identify a fourth, and northernmost range, known as the
This range is located entirely on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, north of the
great west-to-east trending valley of the Yarlung Zangbo River. Although the
Trans-Himalaya Range is divided from the Great Himalayan Range for most of
its length, it merges with the Great Himalayan Range in the western
section--the Karakoram Range--where India, Pakistan, and China meet.
The southern slopes of each of the Himalayan ranges are too steep to
accumulate snow or support much tree life; the northern slopes generally are
forested below the snow line. Between the ranges are extensive high
plateaus, deep gorges, and fertile valleys, such as the vales of Kashmir and
Kulu. The Himalayas serve a very important purpose.
a physical screen within which the monsoon system operates and are the
source of the great river systems that water the alluvial plains below (see
Climate, this ch.). As a result of erosion, the rivers coming from the
mountains carry vast quantities of silt that enrich the plains.
The area of northeastern India adjacent to Burma and Bangladesh consists of
numerous hill tracts, averaging between 1,000 and 2,000 meters in elevation,
that are not associated with the eastern part of the Himalayas in Arunachal
Pradesh. The Naga Hills, rising to heights of more than 3,000 meters, form
the watershed between India and Burma.
The Mizo Hills are the
southern part of the northeastern ranges in India. The Garo, Khasi, and
Jaintia hills are centered in the state of Meghalaya and, isolated from the
northeastern ranges, divide the Assam Valley from Bangladesh to the south